2013年托福考试模拟试题样题汇总

来源:考试资料网 2014-01-01
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  1.

  - M: Look, I’m sorry to bother you about this, but that music’s really loud.

  - W: I didn’t realize you could hear it.

  What will the woman probably do?

  2.

  - M: George is going to work in New York for the summer.

  - W: Can he do that and go to summer school?

  What does the woman imply about George?

  3.

  - W: Shouldn’t someone pick up the clothes from the cleaner’s?

  - M: Don’t look at me!

  What does the man mean?

  4.

  - W: Congratulations! I understand you got a job. When do you start work?

  - M: You must be thinking of someone else. I’m still waiting to hear.

  What does the man mean?

  5.

  - W: Are you sure you corrected all the typing errors? You want to make a good impression.

  - M: I’d better read through the paper

  What is the man going to do?转自:考试网 - [ppkao.Com]

  6.

  - M: I think the whole class is going on the field trip next Friday.

  - W: I’m not so sure. Not everyone has paid the transportation fee.

  What does the woman imply?

  7.

  - W: Could you bring my calculator back? I need it to do my math homework tonight.

  - M: I don’t know how to put this; but, uh, I dropped it, and now the “on” button doesn’t light up.

  What is the man’s problem?

  8.

  -W: Look at this note from the landlord.

  - W2: What? We can’t afford another twenty dollars a month.

  What are the speakers talking about?

  9.

  - W: Janet said she’s coming to my graduation.

  - M: But she has to work that week, doesn’t she?

  What does the man imply about Janet?

  10.

  - W: Why is it that whenever I open my mailbox lately, I pull out letters addressed to you?

  - M: Oh, uh, until I find a new apartment, I’m having the post office for ward my mail to your place.

  What is happening to the man’s letters?

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  11.

  - M: Have you seen Jim around? We’ve supposed to play tennis.

  - W: Well, his racket’s here on the table.

  What does the woman imply about Jim?

  12.

  - W: How did the discussion on inflation go?

  - M: I didn’t think I had much to say. But it lasted over an hour.

  What does the man mean?

  13.

  - M: I can’t remember the due date for our final paper.

  - W: I think it’s the twelfth, but the professor said not to wait until the last minute to hand it in.

  What did the professor suggest the students do?

  14.

  - M: Gary says he’s planning to take two extra courses this term.

  - W: He’s got to be out of his mind.

  What does the woman imply about Gary?

  15.

  - W: I’m stopping at the museum shop. It’s got some inexpensive prints that would make good gifts.

  - M: Especially if you’re a modern art lover.

  What does the woman mean?

  16.

  - M: Weren’t you trying to get us all together for a picnic this weekend?

  - W: It never really got off the ground.

  What does the woman say about the picnic?

  17.

  - W: This Intro to Lit class wasn’t supposed to be hard.

  - M: But it’s sure turned out to be, didn’t it?

  What does the man think about the class?

  18.

  - M: I ought to call Joan and tell her about the meeting this afternoon.

  - W: Why bother? You’ll see her at lunch.

  What does the woman suggest the man do?

  19.

  - M: What’s happening with the library? Aren’t they adding a new wing?

  - W: The construction crew’s just finishing it up.

  What does the woman mean?

  20.

  - M: They said the train won’t arrive till nine!

  - W: I guess that boils down to another delay in our schedule.

  What does the woman mean?

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  21.

  - M: Don’t forget to put your umbrella in the car.

  - W: Oh, It’s just overcast.

  What does the woman imply?

  22.

  - W: I’m taking my roommate out for her birthday tonight, you know, to that fancy new restaurant.

  - M: You can’t go like that. You’d better change.

  What does the man suggest the woman do?

  23.

  - W: Didn’t Marion go shopping with you yesterday?

  - M: Even if she hadn’t had a lot of studying, she would’ve preferred to stay home.

  What does the man imply about Marion?

  24.

  - M: I’m going to give up playing table tennis. I lost again today.

  - W: Just because you lost. Is that any reason to quit?

  What does the woman suggest the man do?

  25.

  - W: Has Sally ever missed coming to one of our parties?

  - M: Only once…or twice, at the most.

  What does the man say about Sally?

  26.

  - W: Would you like to come mountain climbing with us?

  - M: Thanks, but that’s the last thing in the world I’d want to do?

  What does the man mean?

  27.

  - M: What have they decided to call the stadium?

  - W: No one’s come up with anything yet.

  What does the woman say about the stadium?

  28.

  - W: Can you come to the concert with me this weekend, or do you have to prepare for exams?

  - M: I still have a lot to do…but maybe a break would do me good.

  What will the man probably do?

  29.

  - W: I hear you got lost on your way to the hotel.

  - W: I don’t know how I did it. I’ve been there a million times.

  What does the man mean?

  30.

  - M: Have you seen this postcard form Ron? He’s in Florida.

  - W: Oh, so he was able to get time off.

  What had the woman assumed about Ron?

  -Questions 31-34. Listen to a conversation about plans for a school election.

  - M: Come on, Julie, how’re we going to convince everybody that I’m the best candidate?

  - W: It won’t be easy!

  - M: Thanks a lot!

  - W: Oh, just kidding. Actually, I think once we show everyone how well you did as junior class treasure, you’ve sure to be elected president.

  - M: Well…What’s your strategy?

  - W: One thing I was thinking of is to hang campaign posters in all the hallways.

  - M: But everybody puts up posters. We need to do something different.

  - W: Let me finish: The campus radio station is willing to let you have five minutes tomorrow morning at seven to outline you plans for the year. Lots of strudents’ll hear you then.

  - M: Great idea!

  - W: I’ve also arranged for you to give a speech during dinner tomorrow. Over a hundred students’ll be there. And you can answer questions after you finish speaking.

  - W: Fine. I’ll see you after class.

  - M: You’ve really good at this. I’ll glad you agreed to help me out.

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  31. What election are the speakers discussing?

  32. What is the relationship between the speakers?

  33. What will the man do tonight?

  34. What will the speakers do after chemistry class?

  -Questions 35-38. Listen to friends talk about a television program.

  - M: Did you watch “Undersea Discovery” last night?

  - W: No, I missed it. Did you?

  - M: Yeah. It was pretty good—it was about barnacles.

  - W: Hmm.

  - M: You know how they stick themselves to stuff in the ocean-link rocks or boats?

  - W: Uh-huh.

  - M: Well, they do that when they’re young, and then they stay in the same place forever.

  - W: It figures. Have you ever tried removing one of those things? Last summer I tried to scrape some off a pier—I had to give up after a while. You’d think they wouldn’t be able to stick like that underwater.

  - M: That’s one reason scientists are trying to figure ort what their glue’s made of. It’s one of the strongest adhesives in nature. And it’s natural protein, so it probably wouldn’t be harmful like some synthetic glues.

  - W: Really?

  - M: Yeah, These biomedical researchers were talking about its possible uses. Orthopedisits could use it for mending broken bones; or it could be used in dentistry.

  - W: I wish I’d seen that.

  35. What was the television program about?

  36. What did the man learn about barnacles?

  37. Why is barnacle glue of particular interest to researchers?

  38. According to the conversation, in what field will the research results be helpful?

  -Question 39-42. Listen to a talk by an instructor in a biology laboratory.

  - W: Before we start our first lab, I’d like to tell you a little bit about the workbook we’ll using. The first thing I’d like to point out is that the workbook contains a very large amount of material---far more than you could ever handle in a single semester. What you’re supposed to do is choose the experiments and activities that you want to do---within a certain framework, of course. Part of my job is to help you make your choices. Next, I’d like to mention that in each workbook chapter, there are usually two subsections. The first is called “Experiments” and the second is called “Activities”. In the “Experiments” section, the workbook gives full instructions for all the experiments, including alternate procedures. Choose the procedure you wish---there’s plenty of equipment available. In the “Activities” section, you will find suggestions for projects that you can do on your own time. You’ll see that there are usually no detailed instructions for the activities---supposed to do them your own way. It there are no question, let’s turn to Chapter One now.

  39. What is the instructor describing?

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  -Questions 43-46. Listen to a radio broadcast about sleep.

  - W: Do you have trouble sleeping at night? Then maybe this is for you. When you worry about meeting sleep and toss and turn trying to find a comfortable position, you’re probably only making matters worse. What happens when you do that, is that your heart rate actually increases, making it more difficult to relax.

  - You may also have some had habits that contribute to the problem. Do you rest frequently during the day? Do you get virtually no exercise of do you exercise strenuously late in the day? Are you preoccupied with sleep, or do you sleep late on weekends? Any or all of these factors might be leading to your insomnia by disrupting your body’s natural rhythm. What should you do, then, on those sleepless nights? Don’t bother with sleeping pills. They can actually cause worse insomnia later. The best thing to do is drink milk or eat cheese or tuna fish. These are all rich in amino acids and help produce a neurotransmitter in the brain that induces sleep. This neurotransmitter will help you relax, and you’ll be on your way to getting a good night’s sleep.

  - Until tomorrow’s broadcast, this has been another in the series “Hints for Good Health.”

  43. What is the purpose of the broadcast?

  44. According to the speaker, what sometimes causes people to have trouble sleeping?

  45. According to the speaker, what sometimes cause people to have trouble sleeping?

  46. What does the speaker say about sleeping pills?

  -Question 47-50. Listen to a professor talk to his city planning class.

  - M: Today we’ll examine the role that private transportation---namely, the automobile---plays in city planning. A number of sociologists blame the automobile for the automobile for the decline of the downtown areas of major cities. In the 1950’s and 1960’s the automobile made it possible to work in the city and yet live in the suburbs many miles away. Shopping patterns changed: instead of patronizing downtown stores, people in the suburbs went to large shopping malls outside the city and closer to the home. Merchants in the city failed; and their stores closed. Downtown shopping areas became deserted. In recent years there’s been a rebirth of the downtown area, as many suburbanites have moved back to the city. They’re done this, of course, to avoid high ways clogged with commuters from the suburbs. I’ve chosen this particular city planning problem---our dependence on private transportation---to discuss in groups. I’m hoping you all will come up with some innovative solutions. Oh, and don’t approach the problem from a purely sociological perspective; try to take into account environmental and economic issues as well.

  47.How did the automobile affect the work force in the 1950’s and 1960’s?

  48. What problem did downtown city merchants face in the 1960’s.

  49. According to the speaker, why are some people moving back to the city?

  50. What assignment does the professor give the discussion groups?

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  Everyone in a particular society recognizes social roles: father, mother, child, teacher, student, police officer, store clerk, doctor, judge, political leader, and so on. Every culture expects certain types of behavior from people who play certain social roles. Anyone occupying a given position is expected to adopt a specific attitude. A store clerk is expected to take care of customers patiently and politely, and a judge is expected to make wise and fair decisions about laws.

  Informal social roles are not always easy to recognize, but can be identified with careful research. They are key indicators of a group's health and happiness. Within the family, one informal role is the family hero, the person who defines integrity and upholds family morality. Others are the family arbitrator, the person who keeps the peace, and the family historian, often a grandparent, who relays valuable cultural information that maintains both the family and the larger society. And finally, there is the family friend, the person who provides comfort and companionship to the family members with emotional needs.

  1.Why does the author mention a store clerk and a judge in paragraph 1?

  A. To give examples of people who hold positions of respects.

  B. To explain why social roles are important to a society.

  C. To illustrate the behavior required of certain social roles.

  D. To compare the responsibilities of two different occupations.

  2.Why does the author use the term key indicators in discussing informal social roles?

  A.To identify the most important type of social roles.

  B.To explain how to identify informal social roles

  C.To point out that informal roles are unique to families

  D.To emphasize the value of informal roles to a group

  答案:

  1.C 2.D

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  The many part of the earth’s atmosphere are linked with the various parts of the earth’s surface to produce a whole---the climate system. Different parts of the earth’s surface react to the energy of the sun in different ways. For example, ice and snow reflect much of it. Land surfaces absorb solar energy and heat up rapidly. Oceans store the energy without experiencing a significant temperature rise. Thus, the different types of surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere at different rates.

  We can view climate as existing in three domains: space, time, and human perception. In the domain of space, we can study local, regional, and global climates. In time, we can look at the climate for a year, a decade, a millennium, and so forth. Finally, we depend on our perceptions of the data, so we must include our own human perception into our model. Human perception must be included if our understanding of climatic processes is to be translated into societal actions. As a society, we make informed choices about how to use the beneficial effects of climate, such as deciding when and where to plant crops. We also make choices about how to minimize the harmful effects of climate---storms, blizzards, and droughts.

  1.Why does the author discuss different parts of the earth’s surface in paragraph 1?

  A.To explain why humans live in some parts but not in others

  B.To show that the entire earth is made of the same materials

  C.To compare how various surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere

  D.To describe changes in the earth’s appearance throughout the year.

  2.According to the author, why must we include human perception in our study of climate?

  A.We must interpret data and take actions related to climate

  B.We must create an interesting model of the climate system

  C.We must develop an understanding of our environment

  D.We must change our traditional ways of studying climate.

  (思考)3. Read the sentence below and write an essay which will have a minimum of 100 words.

  Our understanding of climatic processes is to be translated into societal actions.

  答案:

  1.C   2.A

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  Several men have been responsible for promoting forestry as a profession. Foremost was Gifford Pinchot, the father of the professional forestry in America. He was chief of the Forest Service from 1898 until 1910, working with President Theodore Roosevelt to instigate sound conservation practices in forests. Later he was professor of forestry and founder of the Pinchot School of Forestry at Yale University. Another great forester was Dr. Bernard E. Fernow, the first head of the U.S. Forest Service. He organized the first American school of professional forestry at Cornell University.

  The foresters of today, like Pinchot and Fernow in the past, plan and supervise the growth, protection, and utilization of trees. They make maps of forest areas, estimate the amount of standing timber and future growth, and manage timber sales. They also protect the trees from fire, harmful insects, and disease. Some foresters may be responsible for other duties, ranging from wildlife protection and watershed management to the development and supervision of camps, parks, and grazing lands. Others do research, provide information to forest owners and to the general public, and teach in colleges and universities.

  1.Why does the author compare Pinchot and Fernow to the foresters of today?

  A.To describe different philosophies of forestry management

  B.To show how the field of forestry has changed in 100 years

  C.To argue for the expansion of university forestry programs

  D.To introduce the type of work done by professional foresters

  2.All of the following are mentioned in the passage EXCEPT

  A.what foresters do besides protecting trees

  B.how to select a good school of forestry

  C.people who promoted forestry as a career

  D.management of timber and timber sales

  3. Think about how professors can contribute their wisdom to the public affairs. Write down your contemplations in a essay which have a minimum of 100 words.

  答案 :

  1.D 2.B

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  properly prepared and packed, foods and vegetables can be stored in the freezer for one year.

  Most vegetables and some fruits need blanching before they are frozen, and to avoid this step would be an expensive mistake. The result would be a product largely devoid of vitamins and minerals. Proper blanching curtails the enzyme action, which vegetables require during their growth and ripening but which continues after maturation and will lead to decay unless it is almost entirely stopped by blanching. This process is done in two ways, either by plunging vegetables in a large amount of rapidly boiling water for a few minutes or by steaming them. For steam blanching, it is important that timing begin when the water at the bottom of the pot is boiling. Different vegetables require different blanching times, and specified times for each vegetable must be observed. Under-blanching is like no blanching at all, and over-blanching, while stopping the enzyme action, will produce soggy, discolored vegetables.

  1.Why does the author mention 32 degrees Fahrenheit?

  A.To suggest the storage temperature for most foods

  B.To identify the freezing point of water

  C.To state the correct setting for a freezer

  D.To give the temperature for blanching

  2.Why does the author use the term expensive mistake in discussing blanching?

  A.To state that blanching is expensive but very effective

  B.To warn that not blanching will harm the food’s nutritional value

  C.To emphasize the importance of blanching only a few items at a time

  D.To show that many people waste food by blanching improperly

  3. In our daily life, there are a lot of traditional and scientific methods to maintain the foods’ nutrients, please write an essay to introduce the process of one way.

  答案:

  1.B  2.B

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  1. An alien exploring Earth would probably give priority to the planet's dominant, most-distinctive feature-the ocean. Humans have a bias toward land that sometimes gets in the way of truly examining global issues.

  The word "bias" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) concern

  (B) disadvantage

  (C) attitude

  (D) prejudice

  2. The prevailing winds in the Great Basin are from the west. Warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean is forced upward as it crosses the Sierra Nevada.

  The word "prevailing" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) most frequent

  (B) occasional

  (C) gentle

  (D) most dangerous

  3. There seem to have been several periods within the last tens of thousands of years when water accumulated in these basins. The rise and fall of the lakes were undoubtedly linked to the advances and retreats of the great ice sheets that covered much of the northern part of the North American continent during those times.

  The word "accumulated" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) dried

  (B) flooded

  (C) collected

  (D) evaporated

  4. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?

  The phrase "bizarre" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) odd

  (B) marine

  (C) simple

  (D) rare

  5. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into the water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.

  The phrase "casts off" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) grows again

  (B) grabs

  (C) gets rid of

  (D) uses as a weapon

  1 D

  2 A

  3 C

  4 A

  5 C

  1. Objects in the universe show a variety of shapes: round planets (some with rings) , tailed comets, wispy cosmic gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this list describes the largest single entities in the universe.

  The word "entities" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) factors

  (B) processes

  (C) objects

  (D) puzzles

  2. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds.

  The word "motifs" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) tools

  (B) prints

  (C) signatures

  (D) designs

  3. Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally think of as "sculptors" in today's use of the word.

  The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) separate

  (B) assembled

  (C) notable

  (D) inferior

  4. On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pill.

  The word "rare" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) festive

  (B) infrequent

  (C) delightful

  (D) unexpected

  5. Desert mammals also depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant's gazelles.

  The word "maintaining" is closest in meaning to which of following?

  (A) measuring

  (B) inheriting

  (C) preserving

  (D) delaying

  1 C

  2 D

  3 A

  4 B

  5 C

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  Sports Commentary

  One of the most interesting and distinctive of all uses of language is commentary. An oral reporting of ongoing activity, commentary is used in such public arenas as political ceremonies, parades, funerals, fashion shows and cooking demonstrations. The most frequently occurring type of commentary may be that connected with sports and games. In sports there are two kinds of commentary, and both are often used for the same sporting event. “play-by-play” commentary narrates the sports event, while “color –adding” or “color” commentary provides the audience with pre-event background, during-event interpretation, and post-event evaluation. Color commentary is usually conversational in style and can be a dialogue with two or more commentators.

  Play-by-play commentary is of interest to linguists because it is unlike other kinds of narrative, which are typically reported in past tense. Play-by-play commentary is reported in present tense. Some examples are “he takes the lead by four” and “she’s in position.” One linguist characterizes radio play-by-play commentary as “a monologue directed at an unknown, unseen mass audience who voluntarily choose to listen…and provide no feedback to the speaker.” It is these characteristics that make this kind of commentary unlike any other type of speech situation.

  The chief feature of play-by-play commentary is a highly formulaic style of presentation. There is distinctive grammar not only in the use of the present tense but also in the omission of certain elements of sentence structure. For example “Smith in close” eliminates the verb, as some newspaper headlines do. Another example is inverted word order, as in “over at third is Johnson.” Play-by-play commentary is very fluent, keeping up with the pace of the action. The rate is steady and there is little silence. The structure of the commentary is cyclical, reflecting the way most games consist of recurring sequences of short activities---as in tennis and baseball---or a limited number of activity options---as in the various kinds of football. In racing, the structure is even simpler, with the commentator informing the listener of the varying order of the competitors in a “state of play” summary, which is crucial for listeners or viewers who have just tuned in.

  1.Which of the following statements is true of color commentary?

  A.It narrates the action of the event in real time, using the present tense.

  B.It is a monologue given to an audience that does not respond to the speaker.

  C.It is steady and fluent because it must keep up with the action of the event.

  D.It gives background on the event, and interprets and evaluates the event.

  2.Why does the author quote a linguist in paragraph 2?

  A.To describe the uniqueness of radio play-by-play

  B.To show how technical sports commentary is

  C.To give examples of play-by-play commentary

  D.To criticize past trends in sports commentary

  3.It can be inferred from the passage that the author most likely agrees with which of the following statements about sports commentary?

  A.Color commentary is more important than play-by-play commentary

  B.Sports commentators do not need special knowledge of the sport.

  C.Commentary enhances the excitement and enjoyment of sports.

  D.Sports commentators should work hard to improve their grammar.

  答案:

  1. D 2. A 3.C

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  THE QUEEN ANNE HOUSE

  The house style that dominated American housing during the 1880s and 1890s was known as Queen Anne, a curious name for an American style. The name was, in fact, a historical accident, originating with fashionable architects in Victorian England who coined it with apparently no reason other than its pleasing sound. The Queen Anne style was loosely based on medieval structures built long before 1702, the beginning year of Queen Anne’s reign.

  A distinctive characteristic found in most Queen Anne houses is the unusual roof shape --- a steeply pitched, hipped central portion with protruding lower front and side extensions that end in gables. It is often possible to spot these distinctive roof forms from several blocks away. Another feature of this style is the detailing, shown in the wood shingle siding cut into fanciful decorative patterns of scallops, curves, diamonds, or triangles. Queen Anne houses are almost always asymmetrical. If you draw an imaginary line down the middle of one, you will see how drastically different the right and left sides are, all the way from ground level to roof peak. A final characteristic is the inviting wraparound porch that includes the front door area and then extends around to either the right or left side of the house.

  Queen Anne houses faded from fashion early in the twentieth century as the public’s taste shifted toward the more modern Prairie and Craftsman style houses. Today, however, Queen Anne houses are favorite symbols of the past, painstakingly and lovingly restored by old-house buffs and reproduced by builders who give faithful attention to the distinctive shapes and detailing that were first popularized more than one hundred years ago.

  1. Why does the author use the word curious in describing the name of an American style?

  A.The style was invented before Queen Anne’s reign.

  B.The name was accidentally misspelled.

  C.The style was more popular in Victorian England.

  D.The name did not originate in American.

  2. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to

  A. style

  B. name

  C. accident

  D. England

  3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a characteristic feature of Queen Anne houses?

  A. decorative windows

  B. wood shingle exterior walls

  C. large porch

  D. steeply pitched roof

  4. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the Queen Anne style?

  A. the Queen Anne style combined several other styles.

  B. the Queen Anne style had to be built in the city.

  C. the Queen Anne style was elaborate and ornate.

  D. the Queen Anne style was not very popular.

  5. The word buffs in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

  A. experts

  B. sellers

  C. critics

  D. painters

  6. Can you predict the main element which the architects will concern for next generation of house style? Write an essay to give your opinions.

  答案:

  1.D  2.B  3.A  4.C  5.A

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  The many part of the earth’s atmosphere are linked with the various parts of the earth’s surface to produce a whole---the climate system. Different parts of the earth’s surface react to the energy of the sun in different ways. For example, ice and snow reflect much of it. Land surfaces absorb solar energy and heat up rapidly. Oceans store the energy without experiencing a significant temperature rise. Thus, the different types of surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere at different rates.

  We can view climate as existing in three domains: space, time, and human perception. In the domain of space, we can study local, regional, and global climates. In time, we can look at the climate for a year, a decade, a millennium, and so forth. Finally, we depend on our perceptions of the data, so we must include our own human perception into our model. Human perception must be included if our understanding of climatic processes is to be translated into societal actions. As a society, we make informed choices about how to use the beneficial effects of climate, such as deciding when and where to plant crops. We also make choices about how to minimize the harmful effects of climate---storms, blizzards, and droughts.

  1.Why does the author discuss different parts of the earth’s surface in paragraph 1?

  A.To explain why humans live in some parts but not in others

  B.To show that the entire earth is made of the same materials

  C.To compare how various surfaces transfer heat into the atmosphere

  D.To describe changes in the earth’s appearance throughout the year.

  2.According to the author, why must we include human perception in our study of climate?

  A.We must interpret data and take actions related to climate

  B.We must create an interesting model of the climate system

  C.We must develop an understanding of our environment

  D.We must change our traditional ways of studying climate.

  (思考)3. Read the sentence below and write an essay which will have a minimum of 100 words.

  Our understanding of climatic processes is to be translated into societal actions.

  答案:

  1.C   2.A

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  The house style that dominated American housing during the 1880s and 1890s was known as Queen Anne, a curious name for an American style. The name was, in fact, a historical accident, originating with fashionable architects in Victorian England who coined it with apparently no reason other than its pleasing sound. The Queen Anne style was loosely based on medieval structures built long before 1702, the beginning year of Queen Anne’s reign.

  A distinctive characteristic found in most Queen Anne houses is the unusual roof shape --- a steeply pitched, hipped central portion with protruding lower front and side extensions that end in gables. It is often possible to spot these distinctive roof forms from several blocks away. Another feature of this style is the detailing, shown in the wood shingle siding cut into fanciful decorative patterns of scallops, curves, diamonds, or triangles. Queen Anne houses are almost always asymmetrical. If you draw an imaginary line down the middle of one, you will see how drastically different the right and left sides are, all the way from ground level to roof peak. A final characteristic is the inviting wraparound porch that includes the front door area and then extends around to either the right or left side of the house.

  Queen Anne houses faded from fashion early in the twentieth century as the public’s taste shifted toward the more modern Prairie and Craftsman style houses. Today, however, Queen Anne houses are favorite symbols of the past, painstakingly and lovingly restored by old-house buffs and reproduced by builders who give faithful attention to the distinctive shapes and detailing that were first popularized more than one hundred years ago.

  1. Why does the author use the word curious in describing the name of an American style?

  A.The style was invented before Queen Anne’s reign.

  B.The name was accidentally misspelled.

  C.The style was more popular in Victorian England.

  D.The name did not originate in American.

  2. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to

  A. style

  B. name

  C. accident

  D. England

  3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a characteristic feature of Queen Anne houses?

  A. decorative windows

  B. wood shingle exterior walls

  C. large porch

  D. steeply pitched roof

  4. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the Queen Anne style?

  A. the Queen Anne style combined several other styles.

  B. the Queen Anne style had to be built in the city.

  C. the Queen Anne style was elaborate and ornate.

  D. the Queen Anne style was not very popular.

  5. The word buffs in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

  A. experts

  B. sellers

  C. critics

  D. painters

  6. Can you predict the main element which the architects will concern for next generation of house style? Write an essay to give your opinions.

  答案:

  1.D  2.B  3.A  4.C  5.A

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  The discovery of freezing has changed our eating habits more than any other related invention. Because many foods contain large amounts of water, they freeze solidly at or just below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. When we lower the temperature to well below the freezing point and prevent air from penetrating the food, we retard the natural process of decay that causes food to spoil. Freezing preserves the flavor and nutrients of food better than any other preservation method. When properly prepared and packed, foods and vegetables can be stored in the freezer for one year.

  Most vegetables and some fruits need blanching before they are frozen, and to avoid this step would be an expensive mistake. The result would be a product largely devoid of vitamins and minerals. Proper blanching curtails the enzyme action, which vegetables require during their growth and ripening but which continues after maturation and will lead to decay unless it is almost entirely stopped by blanching. This process is done in two ways, either by plunging vegetables in a large amount of rapidly boiling water for a few minutes or by steaming them. For steam blanching, it is important that timing begin when the water at the bottom of the pot is boiling. Different vegetables require different blanching times, and specified times for each vegetable must be observed. Under-blanching is like no blanching at all, and over-blanching, while stopping the enzyme action, will produce soggy, discolored vegetables.

  1.Why does the author mention 32 degrees Fahrenheit?

  A.To suggest the storage temperature for most foods

  B.To identify the freezing point of water

  C.To state the correct setting for a freezer

  D.To give the temperature for blanching

  2.Why does the author use the term expensive mistake in discussing blanching?

  A.To state that blanching is expensive but very effective

  B.To warn that not blanching will harm the food’s nutritional value

  C.To emphasize the importance of blanching only a few items at a time

  D.To show that many people waste food by blanching improperly

  3. In our daily life, there are a lot of traditional and scientific methods to maintain the foods’ nutrients, please write an essay to introduce the process of one way.

  答案:

  1.B  2.B

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  例:Giant pandas, which inhabit restricted areas of high

  A  B

  mountain bamboo forests, are rarely today and

  C

  when they are in captivity they breed poorly.

  D

  分析:错,应改为are rare。rarely为副词,不能作表语,故改为形容词rare

  加宾语时名词和动名词的混用

  后面加宾语当然要用动名词

  例:Tilling means preparation the soil to plant the seeds

  A B

  and keeping the soil in the best condition to

  C

  help the crop grow until it is ready3 for harvesting.

  D

  分析:A错,应改为preparing。preparation为名词,后面不能接宾语,改为动名词preparing后既能接宾语,又与后面的keeping构成并列关系。

  例:Langston Hughes, a prolific writer of the 1920‘s,

  A

  was concerned with the depicting the experience of

  BC

  urban Black people in the United States.

  D

  分析:C错,应改为depicting。 depicting在此为动名词,作介词宾语时不加冠词。注意此处还可以改为the depiction of,但略显累赘,因为后面还有of结构。The +动名词,这个动名词其实就变为了名词。

  表示时间时,状语从句连接词和近义的介词混用

  表示时间有两种可能,

  一种是状语从句,由when and while引导,后面加句子

  另一种是由介词引导,如during,后面加名词,

  考试中往往就利用这个特点,总是给出相反的情况

  例:Balloon observations for military intelligence

  A B

  were made while the American Civil War.

  C  D

  分析:D错,应改为during。while是从属连词或并列连词,后面接句子,后面是名词短语时,应改为介词during。

  例:Some of the most celebrated publicity stunts while the

  AB C

  history of radio were associated with Gracie Allen.

  D

  分析:C错,应改为in。while为连词,后面要求接从句,而句中显然没有从句,故根据题意改为介词in。

  对等连接词和近义的副词混用

  连接平行结构的词叫做对等连接词,但是如果出现else, also, instead等副词把这些结构连接起来行不行呢?当然不行。

  例:Mary McDowell shared Jane Addam‘s interest in social

  A

  work also was a loyal supporter of the League of Nations.

  B C  D

  分析:B错,应改为and。also是副词,不能连接并列的谓语动词,故改为并列连词and。

  例:Paper is strong under tension instead crumples

  AB C

  easily under the stress of compression.

  D

  分析:C错,应改为but;题目意思是在拉力的作用下很强,而在压力的作用下容易起皱;instead, 副词不能连接两个动词并列,but 的对等连接词和and, or的用法是一样的

  表示人的名词和表示事物的词混用

  例:An editor is customarily a brief newspaper or magazine

  A B

  article that gives personal comments on current events.

  CD

  分析:A错,应改为editorial。 editor的意思是“编辑”,根据题意改为名词editorial。

  例:For centuries, music have played acoustical guitars,

  A

  which produce sound from the vibration of the strings.

  BCD

  分析:A错,应改为musicians。music是抽象名词,意为“音乐”,不能表示复数要领显然应改为musicians。

  只能用副词+数量词+名词;不能用形容词

  nearly two hundred students, 这里nearly修饰的是200;

  two hundred diligent students

更多

  例:The Medal of Honor is the highest award military for courage

  AB

  that can be given to any individual in the United States.

  C D

  分析:B错,军事的荣誉是military award而不是award military,单个形容词修饰名词时一般放在被修饰词的前面。

  副词+形容词+名词

  例:Certain types of computers work properly only

  AB

  in environments with controlled precisely temperatures.

  C D

  分析:D错,应改为precisely controlled,精确的被控制的温度。controlled为过去分词用作形容词,修饰它的副词应放在其前面,它自己则要紧挨着被修饰的名词。

  主语系动词, 系动词 + 表语

  例:During the 1600‘s skilled shoemakers scarce were

  A B C

  in what is now the United States.

  D

  分析:C错,应改为were scarce。表语应该放在系动词后面。

  所有的系动词分为三大类:

  第一种:表示保持某种状态,

  is, remain, keep, stay,

  lie, exit

  第二种,从一种状态转变到另一种状态

  become, turn, grow,

  get

  第三种,感官动词

  seem

  look

  feel, sound, appear, smell, taste

  enough修饰形容词或副词时,一般放在形容词或副词后面。

  例: The eruptions of Mt. St. Helens were enough severe

  A B

  to cause numerous deaths.

  C D

  分析:B错,应改为sever enough。severe是形容词, enough放在severe后面。

更多

  一共有三类连接平行结构的词

  单一式: and, or ,but

  相关式: both…and, not … but,

  either …or, neither…nor

  the same…as;as…as, not so…as, not as…as

  such …as, so …that.. too…to, from…to, from…until, between…and,

  not only…but also,Not only +主谓,also

  not only…but also+as well,

  短语式: as well as

  rather than

  other than

  instead of

  考试的方式往往是搭配中有一个单词是对的,另一个单词却不对

  例:John lived in New York since 1960 to 1975,

  A B

  but he is now living in Detroit.

  C D

  分析:B错,应改为from。“从某年到某年”要用“from…to…”这个表达法,不能用since …to…。

  例:Even as he wrote copiously on so diverse topics

  A B

  as education ,politics ,and religion ,Lewis Mumford

  remained active in city and regional planning.

  CD

  分析:B错, 改为such diverse topics as, 出现as, 往往要注意前面一半

  平行的内容

  第一、引导词性的平行,词性的平行本质上是语法作用的平行

  例:Photoperiodism is the functional or behavioral response of

  A B

  an organism to changes in duration of daily, seasonally,

  CD

  or yearly periods of light and darkness.

  分析:D错,应改为seasonal。在daily, seasonally和yearly三个并列的词中,daily和yearly是形容词,seasonally是副词,故改为形容词seasonal,共同修饰名词periods,三个形容词的平行,词性平行

  第二、名词单复数的平行

  但是如果既有可数名词,又有不可数名词,可以不平行

  例:The main advertising media include direct mail,

  A BC

  radio, television, magazines, and newspaper.

  D

  分析:D错,应改为newspapers。newspaper为可数名词,在没有任何前置修饰语的情况下一般用复数形式,并且和前面的magazine平行,而mail, radio, television则是不可数名词。

  例:The Canadian province of Newfoundland has a rocky coast, a moisture climate,

  A B

  and probably the best cod-fishing areas in the world.

  CD

  分析:海岸气候只有一个,但是钓鱼的地方可以有许多个,所以也是不可数名词和名词复数的平行;因此D没有错,A错改为have

  第三、时态的平行

  例:The poet Marianne Moore was initially associated

  with the imagist movement , but later develops

  B

  her own thyme patterns and verse forms.

  CD

  分析:B错,应改为developed。句中前半部分谓语为过去时,与之并列的谓语也应用过去时。

  例:Because the papaya grows readily from seed , -----

  spread from its home in Central America and

  now grows throughout the tropics.

  to be it

  the  its

  分析:正确答案为(B)。空格前是原因状语从句,后面紧接着是谓语动词,空格处明显缺主句主语。四个选项中只有B能单独作主语。注意spread是过去式,没有数的变化,因为这一动作明显发生在过去时间。spread 和grows为什么时态可以不平行呢?

  原来它在Central America 的家乡传播,现在在整个地方传播,now只修饰后面的grow

  例:Ducks have been domesticated for many centuries ----

  commercially for their meat and eggs.

  raised  and are raised

  raised as are raised

  分析:正确答案为B。空格前是一个完整的句子,根据一个空格处如再出现谓语动词一定要有连词这一原则,B为惟一符合条件的选项

  。故选(B)。

  第四、排列位置的平行

  例:---the surface of metal, but also weakens it.

  Not only does rust corrode

  Not only rust corrodes

  Rust, which not only corrodes

  Rust not only corrodes

  分析:正确答案为D。从but also放在动词前可知,not only也须置于动词前,故选D。A、B中的Not only位置放错了,C使句子缺主句,故排除。

  对于not only, but also的用法有以下几种:

  1、主语+not only +谓语,but also+谓语,正确;例如上面例题中的第四个选项。

  2、Not only +主谓,but also+主谓,正确

  3、Not only +主语+谓语,but also+谓语,错误

更多

  例:Woodrow Wilson he was an idealist who refused to make any

  AB

  compromises concerning the establishment of the

  C  D

  League of Nations.

  分析:代词he不是同位语,主语重复;如果是下面这样的主语,那么便是主语同位语

  A prolific writer, Woodrow Wilson

  例:Two unique features of the Arctic they are

  AB

  lack of precipitation and permanently frozen ground.

  C D

  分析:选项B中的they和前面的主语two unique features重复

  谓语的重复 完整的句子后面又多了一个谓语,往往改为定语从句

  例:A paragraph is a portion of a text consists of

  考试A B

  one or more sentences related to the same idea.

  C D

  分析:B错,应改为consisting of或which consists of。句中有两个无法连接的谓语动词,而且前一个谓语动词下面没有划线,故改consists为非谓语动词形式或在它前面加which使之成为从句谓语动词。

  谓语的缺少

  例:Most mammals to maintain a relatively constant body

  A B

  temperature, regardless of what the air temperature might be.

  C D

  分析:A错,应改为maintain。句中缺谓语动词,故去掉不定式符号to 使maintain变成谓语动词。

  主句的重复主句的重复总是考even, instead, during, despite等引导的句子, 但是实际上它们无法把两个句子连接起来,因为它们都是副词或者介词,连接两个句子应该用连接词连接

  例:Salmon spend most of their adult lives in salt water, despite

  A BC

  they return to their freshwater birthplaces to spawn and die.

  D

  分析:C错,应改为though。despite是介词,后面一般接名词作宾语,而在句中它后面却跟着一个完整的句子,所以改为连词though。

  例:Solar eclipses occur during the Moon‘s shadow

  A B

  sweeps across the face of the Earth.

  CD

  分析:B错,应改为when或as。介词不能引导条件状语从句,根据题意改为从属连词when或as。

  例:Even many early leaders of the United States have provided

  A B

  names for towns, only George Washington

  C

  is remembered in the name of a state.

  D

  分析:A错,应改为Even though。even为副词,不能引导从句,根据题意,改为引导让步状语从句的Even though。

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